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The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) uses measured CTDI values at the center and periphery of a cylindrical phantom. The CTDIw value is calculated using conventional, Bakalyar's, and Choi's weighting factors. However, these weighting factors were produced from only 16- and 32-cm-diameter cylindrical phantoms. This study aims to devise new weighting factors to provide more accurate average dose in the central cross-sectional plane of cylindrical phantoms over a wide range of object diameters, by using Monte Carlo simulations.Simulations were performed by modeling a Toshiba Aquilion ONE CT scanner, in order to compute the cross-sectional dose profiles of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylindrical phantoms of each diameter (8–40 cm at 4-cm steps), for various tube voltages and longitudinal beam widths. Two phantom models were simulated, corresponding to the CTDI100 method and the method recommended by American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group 111. The dose-computation PMMA cylinders of 1 mm diameter were located between the phantom surfaces and the centers at intervals of 1 mm, from which cross-sectional dose profiles were calculated. By using linear least-squares fits to the obtained cross-sectional dose profiles data, we determined new weighting factors to estimate more accurate average doses in the PMMA cylindrical phantoms by using the CTDIw equation: CTDIw = Wcenter • CTDIcenter + Wperiphery • CTDIperiphery. In order to demonstrate the validity of the devised new weighting factors, the percentage difference between average dose and CTDIw value was evaluated for the weighting factors (conventional, Bakalyar's, Choi's, and devised new weighting factors) in each calculated cross-sectional dose profile.With the use of linear least-squares techniques, new weighting factors (Wcenter = 3/8 and Wperiphery = 5/8 where Wcenter and Wperiphery are weighting factors for CTDIcenter and CTDIperiphery) were determined. The maximum percentage differences between average dose and CTDIw value were 16, −12, −8, and −6% for the conventional, Bakalyar's, Choi's, and devised new weighting factors, respectively.We devised new weighting factors (Wcenter = 3/8 and Wperiphery = 5/8) to provide more accurate average dose estimation in PMMA cylindrical phantoms over a wide range of diameter. The CTDIw equation with devised new weighting factors could estimate average dose in PMMA cylindrical phantoms with a maximum difference of −6%. The results of this study can estimate the average dose in PMMA cylindrical phantoms more accurately than the conventional weighting factors (Wcenter = 1/3 and Wperiphery = 2/3).