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Studies of blackfly vectors of Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), a parasite of wild boar implicated in the aetiology of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and six other zoonotic Onchocerca species of this country are reviewed. Molecular identification of infective larvae found in wild-caught female blackflies showed that Simulium bidentatum (Shiraki) (Diptera: Simuliidae) is a natural vector of O. dewittei japonica, and also Onchocerca sp. sensu Fukuda et al., another parasite of wild boar. Inoculation experiments demonstrated that Simulium arakawae Matsumura and four other Simulium species are putative vectors. Similarly, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum and Simulium oitanum (Shiraki) are putative vectors of Onchocerca eberhardi Uni & Bain and Onchocerca skrjabini Rukhlyadev, parasites of sika deer. Morphometric studies of infective larvae indicated that Onchocerca lienalis Stiles, a bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, Simulium daisense (Takahasi) and Simulium kyushuense Takaoka, and that Onchocerca sp. sensu Takaoka & Bain, another bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. daisense and S. oitanum. Prosimulium sp. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Simulium japonicum Matsumura are suspected vectors of Onchocerca suzukii Yagi, Bain & Shoho and O. skrjabini [Twinnia japonensis Rubtsov (Diptera: Simuliidae) may also transmit the latter], parasites of Japanese serow, following detection of the parasites' DNA genes in wild-caught blackflies.