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Malaria transmission was monitored in two villages in the Sahel zone of Niger over 4 years. During this period, a nationwide vector control programme was carried out in which insecticide-treated bednets were distributed free to mothers of children aged <5 years. Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) were found to be the major malaria vectors. The dynamics of An. gambiae s.l. did not vary dramatically over the study period although the proportion of female mosquitoes found resting indoors decreased in both villages and, in one village, the parity rate and sporozoite index were significantly reduced after bednet distribution. By contrast with An. gambiae, the dynamics of Anopheles funestus altered greatly after the bednet distribution period, when adult density, endophagous rate and sporozoite rates decreased dramatically. Our observations highlight the importance of quantifying and monitoring the dynamics and infections of malaria vectors during large-scale vector control interventions.