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The use of imagery processes in the regulation and enhancement of sports performance is examined in this review paper. Research studies in this area are reviewed and four general categories of research are identified: 1) mental practice, 2) precompetition imagery, 3) comparisons of successful and unsuccessful competitors, and 4) mediating variables. The conclusion is reached that mental practice research has produced equivocal results and the reasons for this are examined. The argument is made that the mental practice model for research into imagery processes in sports is nonproductive. Suggestions for future research directions are offered and guidelines for productive imagery research in sport are provided.