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The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of administering an anabolic steroid to weight lifters of limited experience on strength, body composition, and endurance. Twenty-eight healthy males were assigned to matched treatment or control groups based upon lean body weight and strength. They participated in a nine-week, progressively increasing weight training program. At weeks two, five, and seven, the subjects in the treatment group received 1.0 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) i.m., while the controls received an injection of sterile saline on a double blind basis. No dietary protein supplement was given.Body composition, strength, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured before and after the weight training program. Body composition was estimated by densitometry. Body measurements were taken by standard anthropometric methods. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured by an open circuit technique while the subject was performing a continuous work task on the bicycle ergometer under conditions in which there were incremental increases in the work load. Muscular strength was assessed by maximum bench press and dead lift and maximum torque exerted on a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer.The results showed no statistically significant effect of the anabolic steroid on body composition, strength, or maximal oxygen consumption. Adjuvent effects reported by other investigators may have been due to differences in drug or dosage, treatment duration, training intensity, or the use of supplementary protein in the diet.