Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review

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Rationale:Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2–5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results.Patient concerns:We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years.Diagnoses:All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis.Interventions:All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case).Outcomes:Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case.Lessons:EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

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