Oncocytic Schneiderian papilloma-associated adenocarcinoma and KRAS mutation: A case report

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Rationale:Oncocytic Schneiderian papillomas (OSP) are an uncommon type of sinonasal papillomas that arise from the Schneiderian epithelium, accounting for only 6% of all sinonasal papillomas. Malignancies arising in OSP are rare and are almost always described as in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma, although mucoepidermoid, small cell carcinoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma have also been reported. To our knowledge, only 18 such instances have been reported in the medical literature.Patient concerns:Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old man presenting with a left sinonasal neoplasm, who had undergone 4 operations. The first postoperative pathology revealed a benign nasal polyp. The following several postoperative pathology revealed a novel, human papillomavirus-negative adenocarcinoma with increasing malignant features with each recurrence arising in an OSP. In addition, the most recent recurrences were associated with metastasis of cervical lymph nodes. And after the operation, the patient refused adjuvant radiotherapy. On 6-month follow-up after the last operation, the patient developed an in situ tumor recurrence 1 month after the fourth operation and refused to undergo surgery again.Diagnosis:Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CK7, CK5/6, P53, and P63 showed a progression of malignancy. HPV assay presented the 21 most prevalent HPV types were negative. In addition, KRAS gene exon 2 G12C presented mutation in the OSP-associated adenocarcinoma.Interventions:During the whole course of the patient's disease, we performed four nasal endoscopic operations. And after the last operation, the patient refused adjuvant radiotherapy and KRAS-targeted therapy.Outcomes:We are the first to describe adenocarcinoma arising in an OSP. To our surprise, from the first benign neoplasm to the second OSP-associated adenocarcinoma, it went through a long period of 10 years. However, after the adenocarcinogenesis, the differentiation of tumor became worse with the shorter interval of each recurrence.Lessons:Therefore, for elderly patients with unilateral nasal polyps, long-term follow-up is necessary. Once OSP turns into malignant, radical resection should be performed as much as possible to reduce the irritability of tumors.

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