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Primary poorly differentiated lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma in the orbital region is an extremely rare type of neoplasm with only 1 related case in the literature. Its high grade of malignancy makes the timely data reported necessary. Hence, we present an extremely rare disease with biopsy results and recommendations on clinical treatment in an elderly male with Chinese descent.A 66-year-old Chinese man presented with swelling in the left ocular region and eyeball proptosis. On physical examination, the patient had redness, tenderness, and swelling of the left eye. A surgical incision was noted on the left orbital region. Left eye movements were restricted.Immunohistochemical examination revealed pan-cytokeratin (PCK, +), p63 (partial, +), cytokeratin 7 (CK7, +), cytokeratin 14 (CK14, +), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, +), protein expressed by erythroblast transformation-specific related gene (ERG, −), S-100 (, −), Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER, −), smooth muscle actin (SMA, −), and Ki-67 (with a proliferation index approximately 40%). After carefully reviewed the manifestations, imaging findings, and immunohistochemical evidences, a diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland was made.Based on the gene sequencing results, we started the patient with an intensive PF chemotherapy including a combination of cisplatine, fluorouracil, and epirubicin. Two months later, radiotherapy was introduced to the therapy regimen.The patient responded well to the treatment without severe adverse events. MRI scan showed remarkable remission.This rare case report will help raise the awareness of high grade lacrimal gland cancer, and subsequently aid the diagnosis in future cases. Positive immunohistochemical markers of CK7, CK14, EMA, p63, and high proliferation index of Ki-67 can help establishing a diagnosis, and cisplatine–fluorouracil program is proved feasible. We share the difficulties we have encountered, hoping to improve patient care in the future.