In a previous work, output ratio (ORdet) measurements were performed for the 800 MU/min CyberKnife® at the Oscar Lambret Center (COL, France) using several commercially available detectors as well as using two passive dosimeters (EBT2 radiochromic film and micro-LiF TLD-700). The primary aim of the present work was to determine by Monte Carlo calculations the output factor in water (OFMC,w) and the Symbol correction factors. The secondary aim was to study the detector response in small beams using Monte Carlo simulation.Methods:
The LINAC head of the CyberKnife® was modeled using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system. The primary electron beam was modeled using a monoenergetic source with a radial gaussian distribution. The model was adjusted by comparisons between calculated and measured lateral profiles and tissue-phantom ratios obtained with the largest field. In addition, the PTW 60016 and 60017 diodes, PTW 60003 diamond, and micro-LiF were modeled. Output ratios with modeled detectors (ORMC,det) and OFMC,w were calculated and compared to measurements, in order to validate the model for smallest fields and to calculate Symbol correction factors, respectively. For the study of the influence of detector characteristics on their response in small beams; first, the impact of the atomic composition and the mass density of silicon, LiF, and diamond materials were investigated; second, the material, the volume averaging, and the coating effects of detecting material on the detector responses were estimated. Finally, the influence of the size of silicon chip on diode response was investigated.Results:
Looking at measurement ratios (uncorrected output factors) compared to the OFMC,w, the PTW 60016, 60017 and Sun Nuclear EDGE diodes systematically over-responded (about +6% for the 5 mm field), whereas the PTW 31014 Pinpoint chamber systematically under-responded (about -12% for the 5 mm field). ORdet measured with the SFD diode and PTW 60003 diamond detectors were in good agreement with OFMC,w except for the 5 mm field size (about -7.5% for the diamond and +3% for the SFD). A good agreement with OFMC,w was obtained with the EBT2 film and micro-LiF dosimeters (deviation less than 1.4% for all fields investigated). Symbol correction factors for several detectors used in this work have been calculated. The impact of atomic composition on the dosimetric response of detectors was found to be insignificant, unlike the mass density and size of the detecting material.Conclusions:
The results obtained with the passive dosimeters showed that they can be used for small beam OF measurements without correction factors. The study of detector response showed that ORdet is depending on the mass density, the volume averaging, and the coating effects of the detecting material. Each effect was quantified for the PTW 60016 and 60017 diodes, the micro-LiF, and the PTW 60003 diamond detectors. None of the active detectors used in this work can be recommended as a reference for small field dosimetry, but an improved diode detector with a smaller silicon chip coated with tissue-equivalent material is anticipated (by simulation) to be a reliable small field dosimetric detector in a nonequilibrium field.