Fast online replanning for interfraction rotation correction in prostate radiotherapy

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Purpose:To enable fast online replanning for prostate radiotherapy with the inclusion of interfraction rotations and translations and investigate the possibility for margin reduction via this regime.Methods:Online daily replanning for a 35-fraction treatment for five prostate cases is simulated while accounting for anatomical transformations derived from fiducial marker data available in our clinic. Two online replanning strategies were simulated, compensating for: (a) rotation-only in combination with a couch shift and (b) both translation and rotation without a couch shift. They were compared against our current clinical protocol consisting of a single offline plan used over all fractions with daily couch repositioning (translations only). For every patient, the above methods were generated for several planning margins (0–8 mm with 2 mm increments) in order to assess the performance of online replanning in terms of target coverage and investigate the possible dosimetric benefit for the organs at risk. The daily DVHs for each treatment strategy were used for evaluation and the non tumor integral dose (NTID) for the different margins was calculated in order to quantify the overall reduction of the delivered energy to the patient.Results:Our system is able to generate a daily automated prostate plan in less than 2 min. For every patient, the daily treatment plans produce similar dose distributions to the original approved plan (average CTV D99 relative difference: 0.2%). The inclusion of both shifts and rotations can be effectively compensated via replanning among all planning margins (average CTV D99 difference: 0.01 Gy between the two replanning regimes). Online replanning is able to maintain target coverage among all margins, while — as expected — the conventional treatment plan is increasingly affected by the interfraction rotations as the margins shrink (average CTV D99 decrease: 0.2 Gy at 8 mm to 2.9 Gy at 0 mm margin). The possible gain in total delivered energy to the patient was quantified by the decreased NTID ranging from 12.6% at 6 mm to 32.9% at 0 mm.Conclusions:We demonstrate that fast daily replanning can be utilized to account for daily rotations and translations based on the daily positioning protocol. A daily plan can be generated from scratch in less than 2 min making it suitable for online application. Given the large magnitude of prostate rotation around the LR axis, online correction for daily rotations can be beneficial even for the clinical 8 mm margin and could be utilized for treatments with small margin reduction mainly limited then by anatomical deformations and intrafraction motion. Our online replanning pipeline can be used in future treatments with online MR guidance that can lead to further safe reduction of the planning margins.

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