Various localization and positioning systems utilizing radiographic or nonradiographic methods have been developed to improve the accuracy of radiation treatment. Each quality assurance (QA) procedure requires its own phantom and is independent from each other, so the deviation between each system is unavailable. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a single-integrated QA phantom for different localization and positioning systems.Methods
The integrated phantom was designed in three-dimensional (3D) CAD software and 3D printed. The phantom was designed with laser alignment marks, a raised letter “S” on the anterior surface for optical surface monitoring system registration, a core for radiofrequency (RF) tracking system alignment, eight internal fiducials for image alignment, and an isocentric bearing for Winston–Lutz test. Tilt legs and rotational stage were designed for rotational verification of optical surface mapping system and RF tracking system, respectively. The phantom was scanned using a CT scanner and a QA plan was created. This prototype phantom was evaluated against established QA techniques.Results
The QA result between the proposed procedure and established QA technique are 1.12 ± 0.31 and 1.14 ± 0.31 mm, respectively, for RF tracking system and 0.18 ± 0.06 and 0.18 ± 0.05 mm for Winston–Lutz test. There is no significant difference for the QA results between the established QA and proposed procedure (P > 0.05, t test). The accuracy of rotational verification for surface mapping system and RF tracking system are less than 0.5 and 1° compared the predefined value. The isocenter deviation of each location system is around l mm.Conclusion
We have designed and evaluated a novel-integrated phantom for radiographic and nonradiographic localization and positioning systems for radiotherapy. With this phantom, we will reduce the variation in measurements and simplify the QA procedures.