The status of augmented reality in laparoscopic surgery as of 2016

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HighlightsWe review the state of the art about laparoscopic augmented reality with 270+ recent references.We highlight that most methods consist in a static registration followed by augmentation updates.We propose a clear classification of all methods and weigh pros and cons for each of them.This survey is comprehensive and self-contained thanks to various backgrounds on related topics.Graphical abstractThis article establishes a comprehensive review of all the different methods proposed by the literature concerning augmented reality in intra-abdominal minimally invasive surgery (also known as laparoscopic surgery). A solid background of surgical augmented reality is first provided in order to support the survey. Then, the various methods of laparoscopic augmented reality as well as their key tasks are categorized in order to better grasp the current landscape of the field. Finally, the various issues gathered from these reviewed approaches are organized in order to outline the remaining challenges of augmented reality in laparoscopic surgery.

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