Melanoma signature in Brazil: epidemiology, incidence, mortality, and trend lessons from a continental mixed population country in the past 15 years

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The current research aimed to understand melanoma epidemiology in Brazil and to evaluate temporal trends in incidence and mortality. The data came from Brazilian Hospital Cancer Registries, Population Based Cancer Registries, and the National Mortality Information System from 2000 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used for epidemiological and clinical characteristics. To describe trends in change in incidence and mortality rates, the Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) was calculated. Between 2000 and 2013, in men, the median incidence rate rose from 2.52 to 4.84, with an AAPC of +21.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.4–28] and in women from 1.93 to 3.22 per 100 000, with an AAPC of +13.9% (95% CI: 8.1–20). Regarding mortality, between 2000 and 2014, the rates went from 0.85 to 0.9 per 100 000 for men (AAPC=+0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.1) and from 0.56 for 0.53 per 100 000 for women (AAPC=−0.1, 95% CI: −0.2 to 0). From the database, a total of 28 624 patients with melanoma were included. Most of the patients were females (51.9%), White (75%) and with stage I or II (53.2%). Sex, ethnicity, education level, geographical area of the cancer center, topography, histology, time between diagnosis and treatment, and early death were significantly associated with distant metastases. Brazil is a large country with a very young population and a low rate of melanoma incidence and prevalence that should increase over the years. Understanding the trends attributed to melanoma is important for behavioral counseling interventions that focus on promoting skin cancer prevention.

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