Brain abscess due to : a review of 124 casesCladophialophora bantiana: a review of 124 cases

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Brain abscess caused by Cladophialophora bantiana is a rare disease associated with high mortality due to delay in diagnosis and absence of standardized therapy. We reviewed 124 culture proven C. bantiana brain abscess cases; 103 cases published in English literature during 1952 through 2014 and 21 unpublished cases from our reference center. The majority (57.3%) of the patients was from Asian countries especially from India (62/124, 50%). The diagnosis of the cases was delayed with mean duration 115 days after developing symptoms. The disease was nearly equally distributed in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts but associated with significantly higher mortality (77.1%) in later group. Complete excision of brain lesion in immunocompetent host led to significantly better survival (43.7%). Though all commercially available antifungal drugs have been used in these patients, amphotericin B deoxycholate or lipid preparations were most commonly (62.83%) prescribed agent. None of the drugs used was found to be independently associated with improved outcome. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of 13 isolates of our center, demonstrated good activity to voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole, but these triazoles were prescribed in only 29.2% patients. Increased awareness with early suspicion of the disease, and aggressive medical and surgical approach in treating these patients may improve the outcome.

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