Changes in glucose disposal after a caloric restriction–induced weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders in a Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team study

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Abstract

Objective

This study aims to investigate individual characteristics that explain interindividual variations in glucose disposal in response to a 6-month weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women.

Methods

The cohort was divided into tertiles based on changes in glucose disposal after weight loss. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders: Δglucose disposal ≥ 0.92 mg/kg/min; n = 19) and lower tertile (negative responders: Δglucose disposal ≤ −0.23 mg/kg/min; n = 19) were considered for analyses. Outcome measures included body weight, lean body mass (LBM), LBM index (= LBM / height [m2]), fat mass (FM), FM index (= FM / height [m2]), visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, interleukin-6, lipid profile, physical activity levels, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose disposal by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, and resting blood pressure.

Results

At baseline, positive responders had higher triglycerides and hsCRP levels and lower glucose disposal (0.01 < P < 0.05) than negative responders. Except for visceral fat, the entire cohort showed significant decreases in all measures of body composition (P < 0.005) after weight loss, with greater decreases in body weight, body mass index, and FM index in positive responders (P < 0.005). Finally, data revealed that only positive responders showed decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP levels after weight loss (P between 0.01 and 0.001).

Conclusions

An important interindividual variability in changes in glucose disposal after weight loss is observed. Interestingly, participants who display improvements in glucose disposal also show significant decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP after weight loss.

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