Effects of aerobic exercise training on ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, plasma angiotensin II level, and flow-mediated dilation: a study on obese postmenopausal women with prehypertension

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Abstract

Objective:

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of 10 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIET) on blood pressure (BP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene expression in leukocytes, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in obese postmenopausal women (PMW) with prehypertension.

Methods:

Twenty-four obese prehypertensive PMW (aged 50-70 y; body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) randomly assigned to control (n = 12) and exercise (n = 12) groups. Exercise group performed MIET (25-40 min/d, 3 d/wk at 50%-70% of heart rate reserve) for 10 weeks. Control group maintained their normal daily physical activity level. Body composition, VO2max, BP, ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, plasma Ang II, and FMD were measured before and after the training program.

Results:

After MIET, systolic and diastolic BPs decreased by 4.6% and 2.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Plasma Ang II level decreased by 45.7%, whereas FMD increased by 86% in the exercise group (P < 0.001). Exercise training resulted in a threefold increase in ADRB2 and a fourfold decrease in ACE gene expressions (P < 0.05). Training-induced changes in BP inversely associated with the changes in FMD and ADRB2 (r values range −0.55 to −0.78), and positively associated with Ang II and ACE (r values range 0.68-0.86) (P < 0.001).

Conclusions:

Ten weeks of MIET modulates ACE and ADRB2 gene expression, decreases Ang II plasma levels, and improves endothelial function in obese PMW, and these alterations are associated with reduction in BP.

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