Isolated vitamin D supplementation improves the immune-inflammatory biomarkers in younger postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D (VitD) supplementation on immune-inflammatory biomarkers in younger postmenopausal women.

Methods:

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 160 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years with amenorrhea ≥12 months were randomized into two groups: VitD group, oral supplementation with 1000 IU VitD3/day (n = 80) or placebo group (n = 80). The intervention time was 9 months, and the women were assessed at baseline and endpoint. Serum levels of interleukins (ILs)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12ρ70, IL-17α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma were determined by immunoassay. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Per-protocol analysis was adopted as the statistical method using a gamma distribution and repeated measures design, followed by Wald's multiple comparisons test.

Results:

The two groups were similar at baseline in terms of clinical and laboratory parameters. After 9 months, there was a significant increase of 25(OH)D levels in the VitD group (+45.4%, P < 0.001) and a decrease (−18.5%, P = 0.049) in the placebo group. A significant decrease in IL-5, IL-12p70, IL-17α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels was observed in the VitD group (P < 0.05). IL-5 and IL-6 levels were significantly lower in the VitD group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). There were no significant intervention effects on serum IL-1β or IL-10 levels in either group (P > 0.05).

Conclusions:

In younger postmenopausal women, isolated supplementation with 1000 IU of VitD3 for 9 months was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory biomarkers.

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