Validation of the 10-item Cervantes Scale in middle-aged Portuguese women: paper-and-pencil and online format assessment of menopause-related symptoms

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The aim of the study was to validate the Portuguese language version of the 10-item Cervantes Scale (CS-10), a self-reporting instrument that assesses menopausal symptoms, and to compare the results (both symptom severity and multigroup invariance) of middle-aged women who completed the questionnaire in paper-and-pencil format (PPF) or in the online format (OF).


A total of 292 women, aged 45 to 65 years, completed the questionnaires (PPF = 66; OF = 226). Construct (factorial and convergent) and external validity, as well as reliability and psychometric sensitivity were studied. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to compare PPF with OF, regarding the measure's invariance.


The CS-10 showed good psychometric properties (ie, factor and external validity), as well as good sensitivity and reliability. The association with the Utian Quality of Life Scale (UQoLS) was significant and positive, though weak. The measured structure was invariant when comparing both subsamples (PPF and OF), evidencing an equivalent structure in both. No differences in reported symptoms were observed between the two subgroups.


The Portuguese language version of the CS-10 rendered data with good psychometric properties in a sample of middle-aged Portuguese women. Therefore, it can be used in both clinical and community settings. The weak association between both instruments (UQoLS and CS-10) might be due to the different conceptualization of the quality of life construct: the CS-10 focuses on symptom severity, whereas the UQoLS assesses domains such as work-related or health-related behaviors.

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