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Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are two major health problems affecting more than 60% of post-menopausal women in the United States. The promotion of healthy aging and the prevention and reduction of morbidity and mortality is a main concern for healthcare providers. The similarities and differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are often not clear for clinicians. Some osteoporosis treatments, including bisphosphonates and vitamin D, seem to have a beneficial effect on osteoarthritis as well. A review of these two conditions in terms of bone mineral density, bone turnover, hormonal effects, and treatment options will be discussed.