Comparison of the effects of surgical and natural menopause on epicardial fat thickness and γ-glutamyltransferase level

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Objective:We designed this study to compare epicardial fat thickness (EF) and the γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level between women who had natural menopause and those who had surgical menopause and to correlate EF and GGT level with time since menopause.Methods:Eighty healthy postmenopausal women aged 36 to 80 years (n = 43, women who did not have a prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy; n = 37, women who had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy) were included in the study. M-mode echocardiogram of epicardial fat and serum GGT level analysis were completed to evaluate the relationship between the type of menopause and time since menopause.Results:The average age, years since menopause, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not significantly differ between the two menopause groups. In an unadjusted model and after adjustment for the time since menopause with age, the mean EF and GGT were significantly higher in the bilateral oophorectomy group than in the natural menopause group (P < 0.001 all models).Type of menopause significantly correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.346, P = 0.002), EF (r = 0.472, P = 0.001), GGT (r = 0.473, P < 0.01), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = −0.251, P = 0.025). Interval since menopause was significantly correlated with body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and GGT.Conclusions:Oophorectomy before natural menopause is found to be associated with an increase in EF and GGT level independent of age, body mass index, and time since menopause.

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