In this paper a theoretical model for research into the area of bone health is proposed. The model is based on the mechanostat theory of bone biology, originally proposed by Harold M. Frost, and is directed toward research in the area of osteoporosis. The mechanostat theory is briefly, reviewed, including the concept of changes in minimum effective strain thresholds. Each of the model's five levels is then detailed, followed by discussion of their application to research design and interpretation. The proposed research model may provide a systematic approach to research design, and thereby a method to increase the current understanding of bone biology.