Seven-year change in graded exercise treadmill test performance in young adults in the CARDIA study

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Most studies of physical fitness change have been relatively small, not population-based, and lacking in women and nonwhites. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the 7-yr change in physical fitness in a biracial(black and white) population of young men and women.


We evaluated change in exercise treadmill test performance in a biracial(black and white) population of 1,962 young adults, ages 18-30 yr at baseline, who completed symptom-limited graded exercise treadmill tests at the baseline(1985-1986) and year 7 (1992-1993) examinations of the CARDIA study.


Mean test duration decreased 58 s (9.5%) over 7 yr (black men, 13.6% decrease, white men, 7.4%; black women, 11.1%; white women, 7.0%). Mean time to heart rate 130 (WL130), a measure of submaximal performance, decreased 31 s(11.3%) (black men, 16.9%; white men, 10.0%; black women, 12.3%; white women, 6.1%). Baseline body mass index (BMI) and physical activity were not statistically significant predictors of test duration change in any race-gender group, but change in BMI and activity were. Seven-year weight gain>20 lbs (31% of cohort) was associated with a large decrease in fitness(18.5% decrease in mean duration, 21.8% decrease in WL130).


These data suggest that fitness declines during young adulthood in blacks and whites and that fitness changes are related to changes in weight and physical activity.

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