Exercise training in patients with CHF and heart transplant recipients. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 10 (Suppl.), pp. S367-S378, 1998. The number of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and heart transplantation (HT) recipients enrolled in rehabilitation and maintenance exercise programs continues to expand. There is growing clinical consensus that stable patients with CHF respond favorably to exercise training and convincing evidence that exercise training should be an essential adjunct therapy in postoperative management of HT recipients. This review examines the following specific advances in exercise physiology for heart failure and heart transplantation patients: 1) the mechanisms of exercise intolerance in CHF and the results of exercise rehabilitation studies in these patients; 2) the exercise challenges conferred by glucocorticoid therapy and chronic cardiac denervation in HT recipients; and 3) a summary of current recommendations and guidelines for exercise prescription in each patient population.