Impact of Exercise Timing on Appetite Regulation in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

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Exercise improves appetite regulation, but it is not known if premeal or postmeal exercise more effectively improves appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. For the first time, this study compared how premeal and postmeal exercise alters appetite regulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes.


Twelve obese individuals with type 2 diabetes performed 3 different trials, all in a random order, in which they consumed a dinner meal with the following: no resistance exercise (RE), premeal RE, or postmeal RE beginning 45 min after dinner. A visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness, and frequent blood samples were drawn for determination of acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations.


Premeal RE increased premeal perceived fullness, reduced perceived hunger, and reduced acylated ghrelin concentrations compared with the no RE and postmeal RE trial (P < 0.05). In the postprandial period, both premeal and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger compared with no RE, whereas only postmeal RE reduced postprandial perceived fullness (P < 0.05) compared with no RE. Premeal or postmeal RE did not alter PYY concentrations. In both the premeal and postprandial period, RE reduced PP concentrations compared with no RE (P < 0.05), but upon cessation of RE, PP concentrations rebounded to concentrations that were similar to no RE.


Both premeal and postmeal RE reduced perceived hunger and increased perceived fullness, effects that may help control food intake and aid in weight management efforts in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

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