Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an enteric disease of humans that is a worldwide problem. The O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae contains two predominant serotypes (Inaba and Ogawa) of LPS, a proven protective antigen for humans and experimental animals. We generated B-cell hybridomas from mice immunized with either: (i) two doses of purified Inaba LPS; (ii) two doses of an Inaba hexasaccharide conjugate (terminal six perosamine bound to a protein carrier), (iii) four doses of purified Inaba LPS; or (iv) a low dose of purified Inaba LPS followed by a booster with the Inaba conjugate. We showed previously that the first and third immunization protocols induce vibriocidal antibodies, as does the fourth; the second protocol induces antibodies that bind Inaba and Ogawa LPS but are not vibriocidal. Anti-LPS mAbs derived from hybridomas resulting from each immunization protocol were characterized for binding to Inaba and Ogawa LPS, their vibriocidal or protective capacity, and the variable heavy chain family they expressed. LPS immunogens selected different LPS-specific B cells expressing six different Vh chain families. Protective and non-protective mAbs could express variable regions from the same family. One mAb was specific for Inaba LPS, the other mAbs were cross-reactive with both LPS serotypes. Sequence comparison suggests that the pairing of a specific light chain, somatic mutation, or the specific VDJ recombination can modulate the protective capacity of mAbs that express a common variable heavy chain family member.