Myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO–ANCA) is associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and glomerular crescent formation. Pathogenic factors in RPGN were analyzed by using SCG/Kj mice, which spontaneously develop MPO–ANCA-associated RPGN. The serum concentration of soluble IL-6R was determined by using ELISA and those of another 23 cytokines and chemokines by Bio-Plex analysis. Sections of frozen kidney tissue were examined by fluorescence microscopy and the CD3+B220+ T cell subset in the spleen determined by a flow cytometry. Concentrations of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were significantly correlated with the percentages of crescent formation. Anti-IL-6R antibody, which has been effective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, was administered to SCG/Kj mice to elucidate the role of IL-6 in the development of RPGN. MPO–ANCA titers decreased after administration of anti-IL-6R antibody, but not titers of mizoribine, which is effective in Kawasaki disease model mice. These results suggest that IL-6-mediated signaling is involved in the production of MPO–ANCA.