Modulation of the inflammation–coagulation interaction during pneumococcal pneumonia by immunobioticLactobacillus rhamnosusCRL1505: Role of Toll-like receptor 2

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The present study evaluated the effect of nasally givenLactobacillus rhamnosusCRL1505 on the immunocoagulative response during pneumococcal infection in immunocompetent mice. In addition, we aimed to gain insight into the mechanism involved in the immunomodulatory effect of theL. rhamnosusCRL1505 strain by evaluating the role of TLR2. Results showed that nasally givenL. rhamnosusCRL1505 effectively regulates inflammation and hemostatic alterations during the pneumococcal infection. Immunobiotic treatment significantly reduced permeability of the bronchoalveolar–capillary barrier, and general cytotoxicity, decreasing lung tissue damage. The CRL1505 strain improved the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 after pneumococcal challenge. In addition, increased TM and TF expressions were found in lungs ofL. rhamnosusCRL1505-treated mice. Moreover, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the TLR2 signaling pathway has a role in the induction of IFN-γ and IL-10 and in the reduction of TF. The results also allow us to speculate that a PRR, other than TLR2, may mediate the immunobiotic activity ofL. rhamnosusCRL1505 and could explain changes in TNF-α and TM.

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