The kinetics of urinary shedding of BK virus in children with renal disease

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Abstract

Children with renal diseases are typically treated with immunosuppressive drugs, which place them at high risk of reactivation of the BK virus (BKV). Currently, little is known about the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on the kinetics of urinary shedding of BKV and viral reactivation in pediatric patients with renal diseases. Urine samples were collected monthly for 1 year from 20 children (median age, 9 years; range, 4–15 years) with renal diseases and subjected to real-time PCR. Urinary shedding of BKV was detected in 35% (7/20) of the patients, three of these patients having persistent viral DNA excretion (two cases, twelve times; one case, four times) and four having intermittent viral DNA excretion. Thirty-four of the 240 urine samples contained BKV DNA (median copy numbers, 5.66 log copies/mL; range, 2.45–7.69 log copies/mL). In two of the cases with persistent viral shedding, high copy numbers (range, 4.57–7.69 log copies/mL) of BKV DNA were detected in all 12 urine samples collected. In the other case with persistent viral excretion, a range of 2.45–3.98 log copies/mL of BKV DNA was detected in the four urine samples collected between the 9th and 12th sampling time points. Additionally, high copy numbers (range, 3.12–4.36 log copies/mL) of BKV DNA were detected intermittently in the urine samples of the other four cases. No remarkable correlations were found between the kinetics of BKV DNA loads and urinary findings such as proteinuria and hematuria. The present data demonstrate the kinetics of urinary BKV shedding in pediatric patients with renal diseases. Additionally, no pathogenic role for BKV infection was identified.

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