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Of the various virulence mechanisms of the opportunistic pathogenPseudomonas aeruginosa, the type III secretion system (TTSS) has been characterized as a major factor associated with acute lung injury, bacteremia and mortality. In addition, PcrV, a component protein of the TTSS, has been characterized as a protective antigen against infection withP. aeruginosa. This study comprised an epidemiological analysis of serum anti-PcrV titers in a cohort of Japanese adults. From April 2012 to March 2013, serum anti-PcrV titers of 198 volunteer participants undergoing anesthesia for scheduled surgeries were measured. The median, minimum and maximum serum anti-PcrV titers among the 198 participants were 4.09 nM, 1.01 nM and 113.81 nM, respectively. The maximum peaks in the histogram were within the anti-PcrV 2.00–4.99 nM titer range; values for 115 participants (58.1%) were within this range. Anti-PcrV titers were more than approximately three-fold greater (>12 nM) than the median value in 21 participants (10.6%). Ten-year interval age increases, history of treatment for traffic trauma, and a history of past surgery each showed statistically significant associations with higher anti-PcrV titers (i.e., >10 nM) than did the other factors assessed by binomial analysis. This study revealed a considerable variation in anti-PcrV titers in adult subjects without any obvious histories of infection withP. aeruginosa.