The analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of nine strains of azospirilla revealed the presence of the characteristic components of these glycopolymers: carbohydrates, hydroxylated fatty acids, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid (KDO). SDS electrophoresis revealed the heterogeneous nature and the strains differences in the ratio of the molecular S and R forms present in the LPS. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies (Ab) were obtained against the isolated LPSCd, LPSSp59b, LPSSp7, LPSS17, and LPSKBC1 preparations. Based on the results of the serological studies of the LPS, the bacterial strains investigated in the work were divided into two main serogroups. Based on the immunoblotting data, AbSp59b and AbCd were found to be formed in response to both the S and R forms of the LPS molecules, whereas all the rest formed in response to the S forms only. It was shown that the heterogeneity of the antigenic determinants is typical of the second LPS group. It was suggested that rhamnose plays one of the key roles in the specific interactions between the azospirillum membrane LPS and Ab.