The effect of kanamycin on the electrophysical parameters of cell suspensions of Escherichia coli K-12 and pMMB33 was investigated. Incubation of the sensitive K-12 strain with kanamycin resulted in significant changes in the orientation spectra (OS) of the cell suspensions; these changes were not revealed in the case of the resistant pMMB33 strain. In the case of the sensitive K-12 strain incubated with different kanamycin concentrations, changes in the OS of the cell suspensions occurred within the 10–1000 kHz frequency range of the orienting electrical field. The most pronounced change in the electrooptical signal was observed at 10 μg/ml of kanamycin. Control experiments were carried out by standard plating on nutrient media. Thus, the OS changes of suspensions in the presence of antibiotics may be used as a test for microbial resistance to such antibiotics.