The monoamine neuromediators serotonin (5-HT), histamine, dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE), added to an Escherichia coli K-12 strain MC 4100 culture upon inoculation, stimulate cell proliferation (determined from CFU formation) and biomass accumulation (monitored nephelometrically) during the late lag phase and the early exponential growth phase. These effects are less significant in the late exponential and stationary phase cultures. According to the concentration dependence of the stimulatory effects, the neuromediators can be classified into two groups: (i) the catecholamines DA and NE, whose effects increase almost linearly with increasing concentrations within the range of 0.1–100 μM, and (ii) histamine and 5-HT, which are characterized by bell-shaped concentration dependence curves with maxima at 0.1 (histamine) and 1 μM (5-HT). On an agar-containing medium, the growing E. coli population includes solitary cells and compact cell groups (microcolonies). In this system, both tested catecholamines exert a relatively weak stimulatory influence that manifests itself as an increase in the number of both solitary cells and cell groups, and occurs at concentrations of 10 μM and higher. In analogy to the culture grown on the liquid medium, 5-HT and histamine are distinguished by nonlinear concentration dependence curves: their effects peak at 0.1 μM (histamine) or 1 μM (5-HT); an increase in the neuromediator concentrations results in a decrease in effects that are enhanced by further increasing the concentrations to the submillimolar range. DA increases the percentage of solitary cells, whereas the other tested amines promote cell group formation. The results are interpreted in terms of specific (probably receptor-dependent) mechanisms of action in the neuromediators involved.