Strain Z-M001 of a unicellular cyanobacterium, assigned by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence to the phylogenetic group of the generic level Euhalothece, was isolated from soda Lake Magadi. It was shown that strain Z-M001, unlike all other known cultured and uncultured organisms of the Euhalothece group, is extremely natronophilic, and it was named accordingly “Euhalothece natronophila”. In its ecophysiological characteristics, it is comparable to extremely alkaliphilic organotrophic natronobacteria, which is essential for soda ecosystems, because cyanobacteria belong to primary producers. E. natronophila exhibits considerable morphological variability depending on the concentration of carbonates in the medium. The polymorphism of “E. natronophila” is primarily connected to limitation by utilizable forms of carbon.