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Knowledge of the anatomy of the superficial peroneal nerve (SPN) is necessary for surgeons caring for patients with lower extremity pain after ankle, leg, or knee injuries, for athletes with exertional compartment syndrome, and those having reconstructive microsurgery with either soft tissue or vascularized fibular flaps. The anatomy of the SPN is known to be that of a peripheral nerve traveling in the lateral compartment of the lower leg. Recently, clearer descriptions of its variability have documented that between 27 and 43% of patients have the SPN in either the anterior compartment or both the anterior and the lateral compartment of the leg. The present observations record the location of the SPN within the septum that separates the anterior from the lateral compartment. Awareness of this unusual variant location will enable the surgeon to find and preserve the SPN during fasciotomy, neurolysis, neuroma resection, or bony and soft tissue reconstruction.

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