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Cryopreservation of organs has been investigated to sustain the reproductive function of patients undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy and radiotherapy or reproductive surgery. A modified protocol for whole organ cryopreservation was described and the outcome of cryopreservative ovaries was evaluated, and apoptosis of cryopreservative cells stored for different time period and the viability of cryopreserved cells stored at different temperature was examined in rats. Lewis rat ovarian grafts were perfused for 30 min at 0.35 ml/min with M2 medium containing 0.1M fructose and increasing concentrations of 0-1.5M dimethylsulfoxide, cooled to −140°C controlled by a computerized program, and stored in liquid nitrogen (−196°C) for 24 hours. After being thawed, ovaries were transplanted to syngeneic recipients after bilateral oophorectomy. Graft functions were monitored postoperatively. The major findings were that: 1) A 100% survival rate of rat ovaries was achieved in this study. Ovarian hormone secretion recovered in 80% rats which had received cryopreservative ovarian grafts. Postoperative serum estradiol levels in the cryopreservative graft group were lower than in the sham surgery control, but much higher than in the bilateral oophorectomy group. 2) Histological examination of cryopreservative ovarian grafts showed preantral and antral follicles. Two gestations were obtained. 3) Estradiol levels remained low in ovariectomized rats while in the oophorectomized rats given cryopreservative ovarian grafts levels started to rise after 14 ± 3 days. 4) The average viability in the cells from cryopreservative ovary organ (−196°C) was about 71 ± 18% compared to 90 ± 9% of fresh cells. This success should encourage further improvement of cryopreservative techniques for large organs.

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