Heavy and abusive alcohol use is a major health problem facing military service members. We reviewed literature on alcohol intervention programs targeting military personnel to assess the methodological quality and effectiveness of the programs. Although the search yielded more than 42,000 citations, only 150 met initial screening criteria. Eighteen studies had sufficient evidence to meet secondary screening and of these only 10 studies were included in the review. These studies employed several types of interventions, but only 1 used a randomized controlled trial. Our findings indicate that there is greater need to assess intervention strategies, and there is a particular need for high-quality studies using randomized controlled trials with standardized assessment tools to improve the generalizability of the findings. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research in this area.