Kinetics of lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides was investigated with respect to pH and temperature. Flask cultures with initial pH 5.0–8.0 were carried out, and it was found that pH 6.0 was optimal for the algal growth. Further tests in fermentors showed that the highest biomass concentration, maximum cellular lutein content and lutein yield were achieved at pH 6. 6. In addition, it was shown that optimal biomass concentration and lutein yield were obtained at 28°C, while application of 35°C resulted in the highest cellular lutein content. A mathematical model was developed for the description of the processes under these cultivation conditions and the kinetic model fitted well to the experimental data. The obtained results may contribute to the commercial production of lutein by C. protothecoides.