Oxidative stress due to anesthesia and surgical trauma: Importance of early enteral nutrition

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Anesthesia and surgical trauma are considered major oxidative and nitrosative stress effectors resulting in the development of SIRS. In this study we evaluated the usefulness of early enteral nutrition after surgical trauma. Sixty male Wistar rats were subjected to midline laparotomy and feeding-gas-trostomy. Twenty of these rats served as controls after recovering from the operation stress. The remaining rats received, through gastrostomy, enteral nutrition or placebo-feeding for 24 h. Oxidative stress markers and CC chemokine production were evaluated in rat serum and liver tissue. The operation itself was found to increase nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and to decrease superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as liver tissue energy charge (EC) in relation to controls. The rats receiving enteral feeding exhibited statistically significantly lower levels of NO and MDA, and higher levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and liver EC, in relation to placebo feeding rats. The operation significantly increased the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES) in rat serum, while enteral nutrition caused a further significant increase in chemokine levels in serum. mRNA chemokine expression in liver was increased in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that early enteral feeding might play an important role after surgery ameliorating oxidative stress, affecting positively the hepatic EC and regulating, via chemokine production, cell trafficking, and healing process.

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