We assessed the effects of milk proteins and fats, alone and in combination, on the absorption of phenolic acids and the change in plasma antioxidant capacity after jujube juice intake in humans.Methods and results:
Twenty volunteers received the following four treatments each in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a minimum 1 week interval: 200 mL of jujube juice plus 200 mL of (1) water; (2) whole milk; (3) skimmed milk; or (4) milk fat. The results showed that skimmed milk extended the time to reach maximum increase of plasma phenolic acids concentrations and plasma antioxidant capacity. However, neither the skimmed milk nor the milk fat had a significant effect on the absorption of phenolic acids. In contrast, whole milk significantly reduced the absorption of phenolic acids and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). In vitro results suggested the formation of complexes during digestion that involved milk proteins, milk fats, and phenolic acids, which were responsible for the inhibitory effect of whole milk.Conclusion:
Milk proteins and fats together, but not alone, are responsible for the inhibitory effect of milk on the absorption of phenolic acids and the change in plasma antioxidant capacity.