Plant polyphenols are widespread in the American diet, yet estimated intake is uncertain. We examine the application of the Polyphenol Explorer® (PED) database to quantify polyphenol and ellagitannin (ET) intake of men with prostate cancer and tested the implementation of diets restricted in polyphenols or ETs.Methods and results:
Twenty-four men enrolled in a 4-week trial were randomized to usual, low-polyphenol or low-ET diet. Estimated polyphenol and ET intakes were calculated from 3-day diet records utilizing the PED. Urine and plasma metabolites were quantified by UPLC-MS. Adherence to the restricted diets was 95% for the low polyphenol and 98% for low-ET diet. In the usual diet, estimated dietary polyphenol intake was 1568 ± 939 mg/day, with coffee/tea beverages (1112 ± 1028 mg/day) being the largest contributors and estimated dietary ET intake was 12 ± 13 mg/day. The low-polyphenol and low-ET groups resulted in a reduction of total polyphenols by 45% and 85%, respectively, and omission of dietary ETs. UPLC analysis of urinary host and microbial metabolites reflect ET intake.Conclusion:
PED is a useful database for assessing exposure to polyphenols. Diets restricted in total polyphenol or ET intake are feasible and UPLC assessment of ET metabolites is reflective of dietary intake.