Lingonberries have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight gain, plasma glucose, and inflammation. However, the extent of effects was recently shown to vary between different batches of berries. Here, we examine the metabolic response to two independent batches of lingonberries.Methods and results:
Alterations in the phenotype and circulating metabolome elicited by three matched HFDs, two of which containing lingonberries (L1D and L2D) from different sources, were investigated. Glycemia was improved only in mice fed L1D, whereas liver function was improved and inflammation reduced in mice fed both L1D and L2D, compared to mice fed HFD. The unique improvement in glycemia elicited by L1D was associated with a 21% increase in circulating levels of fatty acids. Increased levels of phosphatidylcholines (62%) and lysophosphatidylcholines (28%) and decreased levels of serine (−13%) and sphingomyelins (−26%) were observed in mice fed L1D and L2D, as compared to HFD.Conclusion:
The unique improvement in glycemia in mice fed L1D was associated with a normal metabolic control with an altered set point. Moreover, the batch-independent reduction in liver steatosis and inflammation, was associated with an altered sphingomyelin metabolism.