Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggests that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism.Methods and results
Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner. Results demonstrated that SDF-diets could reduce TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by 40.6 and 62.6%, respectively. DF feeding, particularly fermented SDF, reshaped gut microbial ecology and promoted the growth of certain beneficial microflora species. SDF-diet decreased energy intake, weight gain, intestinal pH values, and serum lipid and cholesterol levels. SDF-diet also enhanced the production of short chain fatty acids with activation of the intestinal epithelial adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK).Conclusion
These findings suggest a central mechanism via which SDF-diet may control TMA metabolism by gut microflora and co-regulate the AMPK pathways of the host.