K-ras, BRCA1/2, and CHEK2 Mutations and Loss of Heterozygosity at 9p, 17p, and 18q in Sporadic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

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The diagnostic significance of molecular markers was assessed for the most common somatic aberrations at the K-ras, TP53, CDKN2A, and MADH4 loci, as well as less common mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2, arising in preinvasive stages of sporadic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The study was performed on paired primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and normal pancreatic tissue specimens obtained from 37 Russian patients. Surgical adenocarcinoma specimens were subjected to manual microdissection. Mutations of K-ras codon 12 were found in 24 tumor specimens (0.65), but not in normal pancreatic tissue specimens. Mutations of BRCA1 (185delAG, 300T > G, 4153delA, 4158A > G, 5382insC), BRCA2 (695insT, 6174delT), and CHEK2 (1100delC) were not found. The informativeness of allelic losses did not differ significantly among the three tumor suppressor loci and was 60% for TP53 (GDB186817) and CDKN2A (D9S974 + D9S162) and 65.7% for MADH4 (D18S363 + D18S474) (t = 0.48). The CDKN2A locus had the highest LOH frequency of 0.95. For TP53 and MADH4 the LOH frequency was 0.62 and 0.70, respectively. In 80% of adenocarcinomas, at least one locus was characterized with LOH. The overall informativeness of the combined data on K-ras mutations and loss of heterozygosity at 9p, 17p, and 18q was 85.7%. Only 9% of the tumors were characterized with microsatellite instability.

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