One of the most convenient methods for the fast and efficient production of target proteins in plants involves self-replicating recombinant viral vectors. We have constructed a plant viral vector based on the genome of the potato X virus. This vector contains the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region of RNA 4 of the alfalfa mosaic virus immediately upstream of the target gene. The incorporation of this sequence into the viral vector increases the production of the target protein by the recipient plant three- to fourfold owing to the increased efficiency of translation of viral subgenomic RNA comprising the target gene. The new vector can be used for the production of recombinant proteins in plants.