The rate heterogeneity of nonsynonymous substitutions in mammalian mitochondrial genes.

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Substitution rates at the three codon positions (r1, r2, and r3) of mammalian mitochondrial genes are in the order of r3 > r1 > r2, and the rate heterogeneity at the three positions, as measured by the shape parameter of the gamma distribution (alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3), is in the order of alpha 3 > alpha 1 > alpha 2. The causes for the rate heterogeneity at the three codon positions remain unclear and, in particular, there has been no satisfactory explanation for the observation of alpha 1 > alpha 2. I attempted to dissect the causes of rate heterogeneity by studying the pattern of nonsynonymous substitutions with respect to codon positions in 10 mitochondrial genes from 19 mammalian species. Nonsynonymous substitutions involve more different amino acid replacements at the second than at the first codon position, which results in r1 > r2. The difference between r1 and r2 increases with the intensity of purifying selection, and so does the rate heterogeneity in nonsynonymous substitutions among sites at the same codon position. All mitochondrial genes appear to have functionally important and unimportant codons, with the latter having all three codon positions prone to nonsynonymous substitutions. Within the functionally important codons, the second codon position is much more conservative than the codon position. This explains why alpha 1 > alpha 2. The result suggests that overweighting of the second codon position in phylogenetic analysis may be a misguided practice.

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