Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used prokaryotic host system for the synthesis of recombinant proteins. The overproduction of recombinant proteins is sometimes lethal to the host cells. In the present study, we expressed the ligand binding domain (LBD) of mouse estrogen receptor alpha (mouse ERα) using an expression vector (pIVEX) in E. coli BL21(DE3) and examined the effect of production of this protein on bacterial growth. The expressed protein was immunologically detected as a 30 kD histidine-tagged protein in the soluble part of the bacterial lysate. The overproduction of mouse ERα-LBD, as reflected by total protein content and expression pattern, resulted in the decrease of bacterial growth.