Neurological disorders affect over one billion lives each year worldwide. With population aging, this number is on the rise, making neurological disorders a major public health concern. Within this category, stroke represents the second leading cause of death, ranking after heart disease, and is associated with long-term physical disabilities and impaired quality of life.
In this review, we will focus our attention on examining the tight crosstalk between brain and immune system and how disruption of this mutual interaction is at the basis of stroke pathophysiology. We will also explore the emerging literature in support of the use of immuno-modulatory molecules as potential therapeutic interventions in stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and neurodysfunction’.