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Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C. elegans. Understanding the mechanisms of axon regeneration will aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for treatments of diseases involving disconnection of axons, such as spinal cord injury and stroke.Microtubules are depolymerized or severed in response to initial damage signals, such as Ca2+.Microtubules undergo remodeling to facilitate axon regeneration.Moderately stabilizing microtubules is sufficient to enhance axon regrowth.The DLK pathway responds to microtubule disruption and promotes microtubule growth.