Anther culturability of rice is significantly different between indica and japonica varieties. A doubled haploid (DH) population was established via anther culture of an indica/japonica hybrid on SK3 medium, which had been shown particularly suitable for anther culture of indica/japonica hybrids. For analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for anther culturability, anthers of the DH lines were again cultured with SK3 medium and parameters for four traits representing the anther culturability were surveyed and analyzed with the molecular map constructed from the same DH population. The parameters for four major traits were as follows: callus induction frequency (CI), green plantlet differentiation frequency (GPD), albino plantlet differentiation frequency (APD), and green plantlet yield frequency (GPY). All four traits displayed continuous distributions among the DH lines. The correlation coefficients between these traits were also tested and showed that there was no relationship between callus induction and green plantlet differentiation frequencies, but both showed strong positive correlation with the frequency of green plantlet yield. For callus induction frequency, five QTLs were identified on chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12. Two QTLs for green plantlet differentiation frequency were located on chromosomes 1 and 9. There was a major QTL for albino plantlet differentiation frequency on chromosome 9. No independent QTL was found for green plantlet yield frequency. The results may be useful in the selection of parents with high response to anther culture for rice haploid breeding and in the establishment of permanent DH populations for molecular mapping.