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Chlorpromazine initiated effective pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia 60 years ago. This discovery initiated or stimulated key developments in the field of psychiatry. Nonetheless, advances in pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia have been modest. Psychosis remains the primary aspect of psychopathology addressed, and core pathologies such as cognition and negative symptom remain unmet therapeutic challenges. New clinical and basic neuroscience paradigms may guide the near future and provide a more heuristic construct for novel and innovative discovery.